**PHP Tutorials - Herong's Tutorial Examples** - Version 4.18, by Dr. Herong Yang

What Is an Operation?

This section describes what is an operation - a process that takes one or two operands and returns a result based on certain processing rule represented by the operator.

**What Is an Operation?**
An operation is a process that takes one or two operands and returns a result based on certain processing rule
represented by the operator.
PHP supports most types of operations used in other programming languages:

1. Bitwise Operations: and ($a & $b), or ($a | $b), xor ($a ^ $b), not (~ $a), shift left ($a << $s), and shift right ($a >> $s).

2. Incrementing/Decrementing Operations: pre-increment (++$a), post-increment ($a++), pre-decrement (--$a), and post-decrement ($a--).

3. Arithmetic Operations: negation (-$a), addition ($a + $b), subtraction ($a - $b), multiplication ($a * $b), division ($a / $b), and modulus ($a % $b).

4. Comparison Operations: equal ($a == $b), identical ($a === $b), not equal ($a != $b, $a <> $b), not identical ($a !== $b), less than ($a < $b), greater than ($a > $b), less than or equal ($a <= $b), and greater than or equal ($a >= $b).

5. Logical Operations: and ($a and $b, $a && $b), or ($a or $b, $a || $b), xor ($a xor $b), and not (!$a).

6. String Operation: concatenation ($a . %b).

7. Assignment Operations: assignment ($a = %b), addition with assignment ($a += $b), subtraction with assignment ($a -= $b), multiplication with assignment ($a *= $b), division with assignment ($a /= $b), modulus with assignment ($a %= $b), and concatenation with assignment ($a .= %b).

To help us understand different types of operations, I wrote the following PHP script, OperationTest.php:

<?php # OperationTest.php #- Copyright (c) 2015, HerongYang.com, All Rights Reserved. # print "\n Bitwise Operations:\n"; print " 0x00FF & 0x3210: " . (0x00FF & 0x3210) . "\n"; print " 0x0001 | 0x0010: " . (0x0001 | 0x0010) . "\n"; print " 0x0001 << 4: " . (0x0001 << 4) . "\n"; print " 0x0100 >> 4: " . (0x0100 >> 4) . "\n"; print "\n Incrementing/Decrementing Operations:\n"; $a = 10; $b = ++$a * 2; print " \$b = ++\$a * 2: $a, $b\n"; $a = 10; $b = $a++ * 2; print " \$b = \$a++ *2: $a, $b\n"; print "\n Arithmetic Operations:\n"; $a = 9; $b = 4; print " \$a * \$b: ". $a * $b . "\n"; print " \$a * \$b: ". $a / $b . "\n"; print " \$a * \$b: ". $a % $b . "\n"; print "\n Comparison Operations:\n"; $a = 9; $b = 4; print " \$a > \$b: ". ($a > $b) . "\n"; print " \$a < \$b: ". ($a < $b) . "\n"; print "\n Logical Operations:\n"; $a = 9; $b = 4; $c = 1; print " \$a > \$b && \$b > \$c: ". ($a > $b && $b > $c) . "\n"; print "\n String Operation:\n"; $name = "Herong"; $greeting = "Hello"; print " \$greeting . \$name: ". ($greeting . $name) . "\n"; print "\n Assignment Operation:\n"; print " \$name=\"Herong\": ". ($name="Herong") . "\n"; ?>

If you run this sample script, you should get:

Bitwise Operations: 0x00FF & 0x3210: 16 0x0001 | 0x0010: 17 0x0001 << 4: 16 0x0100 >> 4: 16 Incrementing/Decrementing Operations: $b = ++$a * 2: 11, 22 $b = $a++ *2: 11, 20 Arithmetic Operations: $a * $b: 36 $a * $b: 2.25 $a * $b: 1 Comparison Operations: $a > $b: 1 $a < $b: Logical Operations: $a > $b && $b > $c: 1 String Operation: $greeting . $name: HelloHerong Assignment Operation: $name="Herong": Herong

*Last update: 2015.*

Table of Contents

Introduction and Installation of PHP 7.0

PHP Data Types and Data Literals

Variables, References, and Constants

►Expressions, Operations and Type Conversions

Data Type Automatic Conversion

Conditional Statements - "if" and "switch"

Loop Statements - "while", "for", and "do ... while"

Function Declaration, Arguments, and Return Values

Configuring and Sending out Emails

Retrieving Information from HTTP Requests

Creating and Managing Sessions in PHP Scripts

Sending and Receiving Cookies in PHP Scripts

Controlling HTTP Response Header Lines in PHP Scripts

MySQL Server Connection and Access Functions

Functions to Manage Directories, Files and Images

SOAP Extension Function and Calling Web Services

SOAP Server Functions and Examples

Localization Overview of Web Applications

Using Non-ASCII Characters in HTML Documents

Using Non-ASCII Characters as PHP Script String Literals

Receiving Non-ASCII Characters from Input Forms

"mbstring" Extension and Non-ASCII Encoding Management

Managing Non-ASCII Character Strings with MySQL Servers

Introduction of Class and Object