Molecule Tutorials - Herong's Tutorial Examples - v1.21, by Dr. Herong Yang
Skeletal Formula Notations
This section provides a quick introduction on what is atomic bond that ties atoms together to form molecules.
There are a number of notations are used Skeletal Formula to simiplify molecule diagrams.
1. Carbon Element Symbols Removed - Since carbon elements are so common in molecules, carbon element symbols are removed from Skeletal Formula diagrams. When you see a bond end point without element symbol, you can assume that it is a carbon element.
2. Hydrogen Elements and Bonds Removed - Since bonds between hydrogen elements and carbon Elements are so common in molecules, all hydrogen-carbon bonds are removed from Skeletal Formula diagrams. When you see a carbon element missing bonds, you can assume that it has additional bonds with hydrogen elements.
3. Wedge and Dash Projections - If 3 dimensional information needs to be maintained in Skeletal Formula diagrams, you can use Wedge and Dash projections. A wedge projection indicates a bond that pointing forward towards the viewer. A dash projection indicates a bond that pointing away from the viewer.
4. Condensed Branches - Some simple branches can be written as condensed Formulas like OH, NH2.
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