End-of-Line Characters Supported in XML 1.1

This section provides a tutorial example showing that two more end-of-line characters, #x85 and #x2028, are supported in XML 1.1.

Next, let's prove that how end-of-line characters are handled differently in XML 1.1 than XML 1.0. Since end-of-line characters are not easy to be presented as text files, I created this test program, EndOfLineXml.java:

/* EndOfLineXml.java
 -  Copyright (c) 2014, HerongYang.com, All Rights Reserved.
 */
import java.io.*;
import java.math.*;
import javax.xml.parsers.*;
import org.w3c.dom.*;
class EndOfLineXml {
   public static void main(String[] args) {
      try {
         String ver = args[0];
         char u000D = 0x000D; 
         char u000A = 0x000A;
         char u0085 = 0x0085;
         char u2028 = 0x2028;
         String xmlString =
            "<?xml version=\""+ver+"\" encoding=\"UTF-16BE\"?><ul>"
            +"<li>1111"+u000D+u000A+"1111</li>"
            +"<li>2222"+u000D+u0085+"2222</li>"
            +"<li>3333"+u0085+"03333</li>"
            +"<li>4444"+u2028+"04444</li>"
            +"<li>5555"+u000D+"05555</li>"
            +"<li>6666"+u000A+"06666</li>"
            +"</ul>";
         File xmlFile = new File(args[1]);
      	 FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(xmlFile);
      	 OutputStreamWriter osw = 
      	    new OutputStreamWriter(fos,"UTF-16BE");
         osw.write(xmlString);
         osw.close();

         DocumentBuilderFactory fct
            = DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance();
         DocumentBuilder bld = fct.newDocumentBuilder();
         Document doc = bld.parse(xmlFile);
         dumpNode(doc, "");

      } catch (Exception e) {
         System.out.println(e.toString());
      }
   }
   static void dumpNode(Node n, String p) throws Exception {
      NodeList l = n.getChildNodes();
      NamedNodeMap m = n.getAttributes();
      int ml = -1;
      if (m!=null) ml = m.getLength(); 
      System.out.println(p+n.getNodeName()+": "+n.getNodeType()+", "
         +l.getLength()+", "+ml+", "+str10ToHex(n.getNodeValue()));
      for (int i=0; i<ml; i++) {
         Node c = m.item(i);
         dumpNode(c,p+" |-");
      }
      for (int i=0; i<l.getLength(); i++) {
         Node c = l.item(i);
         dumpNode(c,p+" ");
      }
   }
   static String str10ToHex(String str) throws Exception {
      if (str!=null) {
         return String.format("%040X", 
            new BigInteger(1,str.getBytes("UTF-16BE")));
      } else {
         return "NULL";
      }
   }
}

Some notes on EndOfLineXml.java:

Let's try XML 1.0 first with JDK 1.8:

C:\herong\xml>java EndOfLineXml 1.0 end-of-line-1-0.xml
#document: 9, 1, -1, NULL
 ul: 1, 6, 0, NULL
  li: 1, 1, 0, NULL
   #text: 3, 0, -1, 00000031003100310031000A0031003100310031
  li: 1, 1, 0, NULL
   #text: 3, 0, -1, 0032003200320032000A00850032003200320032
  li: 1, 1, 0, NULL
   #text: 3, 0, -1, 0033003300330033008500300033003300330033
  li: 1, 1, 0, NULL
   #text: 3, 0, -1, 0034003400340034202800300034003400340034
  li: 1, 1, 0, NULL
   #text: 3, 0, -1, 0035003500350035000A00300035003500350035
  li: 1, 1, 0, NULL
   #text: 3, 0, -1, 0036003600360036000A00300036003600360036

The output confirms that end-of-line characters are handled in XML 1.0 as below:

Here is the output of XML 1.1:

C:\herong\xml>java EndOfLineXml 1.1 end-of-line-1-1.xml
#document: 9, 1, -1, NULL
 ul: 1, 6, 0, NULL
  li: 1, 1, 0, NULL
   #text: 3, 0, -1, 00000031003100310031000A0031003100310031
  li: 1, 1, 0, NULL
   #text: 3, 0, -1, 00000032003200320032000A0032003200320032
  li: 1, 1, 0, NULL
   #text: 3, 0, -1, 0033003300330033000A00300033003300330033
  li: 1, 1, 0, NULL
   #text: 3, 0, -1, 0034003400340034000A00300034003400340034
  li: 1, 1, 0, NULL
   #text: 3, 0, -1, 0035003500350035000A00300035003500350035
  li: 1, 1, 0, NULL
   #text: 3, 0, -1, 0036003600360036000A00300036003600360036

The output confirms that end-of-line characters are handled in XML 1.1 as below:

Note that because end-of-line characters are automatically replaced, you may run into trouble if you really want keep them as part of a node value.

Last update: 2014.

Table of Contents

 About This Book

 Introduction of XML (eXtensible Markup Language)

 XML File Syntax

 XML File Browsers

 DOM (Document Object Model) Programming Interface

 SAX (Simple API for XML) Programming Interface

 DTD (Document Type Definition) Introduction

 Syntaxes of DTD Statements

 Validating an XML Document against the Specified DTD Document Type

 XSD (XML Schema Definition) Introduction

 Syntaxes of XSD Statements

 Validating XML Documents Against Specified XML Schemas

 XSL (Extensible Stylesheet Language) Introduction

 XSLT (XSL Transformations) Introduction

 Java Implementation of XSLT

 XPath (XML Path) Language

 XSLT Elements as Programming Statements

 Control and Generate XML Element in the Result

 XML Notepad - XML Editor

 XML Tools Plugin for Notepad++

XML 1.1 Changes and Parsing Examples

 Major Changes in XML 1.1

 Supporting XML 1.1 in Java 6 and Higher

 Control Codes Supported in XML 1.1

 Unicode Characters Supported in XML 1.1 Names

End-of-Line Characters Supported in XML 1.1

 Web Browsers Not Supporting XML 1.1

 Outdated Tutorials

 References

 PDF Printing Version