Why Using Certificates with Web Browsers?

This section describes why Web browsers needs to use certificates - A SSL enabled Web server requires your Web browser to use certificates to encrypt messages between the browser and the server.

In previous parts of the book, we have learned how to generate certificates. Now let's see how we can use certificates with Web browsers.

The first question we need to ask is why do we need use certificates with a Web browser? The answer is that many Web sites supports SSL (Secure Socket Layer), which encrypts every message sent from and received by the Web browser. Encryption added by SSL makes your communication with the Web server secure, because no systems other than your browser and the final server can understand those encrypted messages.

When a Web browser reaches a SSL enabled Web site (URL starts with https://), the server will send a certificate, called server certificate, the Web browser. The subject of the server certificate represents the server. The browser is expected to trust the server certificate, or validate it with a trusted certification path.

A SSL enabled Web site may also ask the Web browser to send back a certificate, called client certificate, to identify the client, so that the server can validate the client.

So a Web browser needs to have certificates for two purposes:

In next sections, we will look at how two popular Web browsers, IE (Internet Explorer) and Firefox uses certificates.

Last update: 2013.

Table of Contents

 About This Book

 Cryptography Terminology

 Cryptography Basic Concepts

 Introduction to AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)

 Introduction to DES Algorithm

 DES Algorithm - Illustrated with Java Programs

 DES Algorithm Java Implementation

 DES Algorithm - Java Implementation in JDK JCE

 DES Encryption Operation Modes

 DES in Stream Cipher Modes

 PHP Implementation of DES - mcrypt

 Blowfish - 8-Byte Block Cipher

 Secret Key Generation and Management

 Cipher - Secret Key Encryption and Decryption

 Introduction of RSA Algorithm

 RSA Implementation using java.math.BigInteger Class

 Introduction of DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm)

 Java Default Implementation of DSA

 Private key and Public Key Pair Generation

 PKCS#8/X.509 Private/Public Encoding Standards

 Cipher - Public Key Encryption and Decryption

 MD5 Mesasge Digest Algorithm

 SHA1 Mesasge Digest Algorithm

 OpenSSL Introduction and Installation

 OpenSSL Generating and Managing RSA Keys

 OpenSSL Managing Certificates

 OpenSSL Generating and Signing CSR

 OpenSSL Validating Certificate Path

 "keytool" and "keystore" from JDK

 "OpenSSL" Signing CSR Generated by "keytool"

 Migrating Keys from "keystore" to "OpenSSL" Key Files

 Certificate X.509 Standard and DER/PEM Formats

 Migrating Keys from "OpenSSL" Key Files to "keystore"

Using Certificates in IE (Internet Explorer)

Why Using Certificates with Web Browsers?

 Visiting a "https" Web Site with IE

 Viewing Certificate Details

 Viewing Certificate Path

 Installing Certificate Permanently in IE

 Managing Certificates in Certificate Stores

 Exporting Certificates Out of IE

 OpenSSL Viewing Certificates Exported from IE

 Importing CA Certificate into IE

 Importing Certificate Path into IE

 Using Certificates in Firefox

 Using Certificates in Google Chrome

 Outdated Tutorials


 PDF Printing Version