Computer History - Herong's Notes
Copyright © 2015 by Dr. Herong Yang. All rights reserved.
This free book is a collection of notes on computer history. Topics include FORTRAN, Java, UNIX, FTP, C, vi, Bourne Shell, C Shell, Bash, Tcsh, X Window System, Gopher, Macintosh, .NET, PHP, Apple, WWW.
Table of Contents
About This Book
1957 - FORTRAN Language Developed by IBM
What Is FORTRAN?
Storing FORTRAN Program Code on Punch Cards
FORTRAN 66 - Example Program Code
FORTRAN 77 - Example Program Code
g77 - GNU Project FORTRAN Compiler
Fortran 90 - Example Program Code
1970 - UNIX Operating System Developed by AT&T Bell Labs
What Is UNIX?
Command Interpreters and Command Pipelines
UNIX File System Hierarchy
1971 - FTP Protocol Created by Abhay Bhushan
What Is FTP?
Example of Downloading Files
Example of Uploading Files
Anonymous FTP Servers
FTP Client Program Standard Commands
1972 - C Language Developed by Dennis Ritchie
What Is C Language?
TCC - Tiny C Compiler
Compilation and Execution Process of C Programs
GNU C Compiler
Sample C Program for Arrays and Pointers
Sample C Program for Dynamic Memory Allocation - malloc()
1976 - vi Text Editor Developed by Bill Joy
What Is vi Text Editor?
'vi' Commands to Move Cursor and Search for Locations
'vi' Commands to Insert and Change Text
'vi' Miscellaneous Commands in 'ex' Line Mode
1977 - Apple II Designed by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak
Apple II - The First Personal Computer
Apple II Different Models
VisiCalc - The First Spreadsheet Application
Apple Writer - The Most Popular Word Processor
ADT - Apple Disk Transfer
1977 - The Bourne Shell Developed by Stephen Bourne
What Is the Bourne Shell?
Bourne Shell Command Line Examples
Bourne Shell Script File Examples
1978 - The C Shell Developed by Bill Joy
What Is the C Shell?
C Shell Command Line
Command Line History Substitution
Command Line Alias Substitution
Command Line Input and Output Redirection
Command Line Variable Substitution
C Shell Command Line Examples
".cshrc" - C Shell Script File and
1978 - Bash (Bourne-Again Shell) Developed by Brian Fox
What Is Bash (Bourne-Again Shell)?
Bash Command Line Examples
Bash Shell Script File Examples
1979 - The Tcsh (TENEX C Shell) Developed by Ken Greer
What Is Tcsh?
Tcsh Command Line Examples
Tcsh Shell Script File Examples
1983 - "Sendmail" Mail Transfer Agent Developed by Eric Allman
What Is Sendmail?
Using Sendmail as a Mail User Agent (MUA)
Pushing an Email Message in Mail Queue
Using Sendmail as a STMP Server Daemon
1984 - Macintosh Developed by Apple Inc.
Macintosh - The First GUI Based Personal Computer
System Software - The Original Mac OS Operating System
Macintosh Models and Release Years
1984 - X Window System Developed a MIT Team
What Is X Window System?
XFree86 - Open Source Implementation of X
X Window Terminals
1991 - WWW (World Wide Web) Developed by Tim Berners-Lee
WWW and First Web Server
Tim Berners-Lee - Father of the Web
Mosaic - The Browser Popularized the Web
Netscape Navigator - The Most Popular Web Browser in 1990s
Internet Explorer - The Most Popular Web Browser since 1999
Mozilla Firefox - The Most Popular Open Source Web Browser
1991 - Gopher Protocol Created by a University of Minnesota Team
What Is Gopher?
Gopher Menu Item Types
Setting Up a Gopher Server on Linux Systems
".names" File Example
1995 - Java Language Developed by Sun Microsystems
What Is Java Language?
Java Compilation and Execution Processes
Java Is Platform Independent
Java Is an Object-Oriented Language
Java Supports Automatic Garbage Collection
Java Supports Multi-Threading Programming
1995 - PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor Created by Rasmus Lerdorf
Introduction of PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor
PHP Script Source Code File Format
2002 - .NET Framework Developed by Microsoft
Introduction of .NET Framework
HelloCLR.cs - Sample Application in C#
HelloCLR.vb - Sample Application in VB
PDF Printing Version
Keywords: History, Computer